What is Osteoporosis and what causes bone weakness?

Osteoporosis is a musculoskeletal system disease that expresses itself in a bone system friability and decline in osteoctytes.

Osteoporosis is characterized by the decrease of bone mass, causing bone weakness. Due to this condition, bone fracture risk increases even after a little physical activity.

Osteoporosis and fracture:

Osteoporosis most frequently results in following types of bone fractures:

  • Spine compression
  • Forearm’s distal area
  • Proximal humerus
  • Proximal femoral                                                                                                                     

It should be noted, that Osteoporosis isn’t characterized by one concrete clinical sign, but it is possible to distinguish several, frequent and non-specific symptoms for this deasese.

  • Chronical  or newly developed pain in spinal column area.
  • Decrease in height of  2 cm or more in the last 3 years or 4 cm or more compared to age of 25, that indicates decrease in interverbetal distance
  • During height measurement, distance of neck and thoracic spine is more than 5 cm. That indicates chest kyphosis (Kyphosis – spinal curvature in a chest area, “a hump”)
  • The distance between ribs and wings of illum [hip bone area} is 2 fingers (4-5cm) or  less. That indicates spinal column shortening and spinal interveterbetal disc compression (compression – contraction) 

National Center of Surgery, “New Life” clinic’s rheumatologists, Otar Zhvania discusses Osteoporosis with us.

Which age group develops an Osteoporosis and why?

Osteoporosis is common in postmenopausal women, when estrogens decrease in human body. At this time, due to metabolism disbalance and more bone tissue resorption compared to growth, bone architectonics is decimated and bone weakens. This process is most visible in spongy tissue of the bone.

What causes Osteoporosis and what can you tell us regarding riskfactors of it, what increases chances of Osteoporosis development?

A concrete cause of osteoporosis is unknown but risk factors exist, which increase risks of Osteoporosis development. Those risk factors can be divided in two sub-groups: modifiable and non-modifiable.

Modifiable risk factors:

  • Hormone medication consumption for more than 3 months.
  • Tobacco
  • Insufficient calcium in food nutrition
  • Vitamin D deficiency
  • Systemic consumption of alcohol
  • Low physical activity for a long period of time, immobility

Non-modified risk factors

  • Aged 65 and more
  • Female
  • European race
  • Past fractures
  • low bone mineral density
  • Genetic predisposition
  • Hypergondism (producing high levels of reproductive hormones) in men and women
  • Decline in creatinine clearance, Glomerular filtration rate decline
  • Body mass index lower than 20 kg/m2 or 57kg

Also,  factors increasing fall accidents, subsequently - fracture risks, can be added to this risk factors list:

  • Low physical activity
  • Meds causing dizziness
  • Weakness
  • Vision deterioration
  • Sleep disruptions    

Osteoporosis is connected to many diseases.

Disorders of the endocrine system:

  • Endogenous hypercorticism “Itsenko-Cushing syndrome”
  • Thyrotoxicosis;                         
  • Hypergonadism
  • Hyperparathyroidism
  • Diabetes type A

Rheumatoid diseases:

  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Systemic Lupus erythematosus
  • Ankylosing spondylitis, “Bekhterev’s disease”
  • Kidney disease
  • Kidney failure
  • Acidosis
  • Fanconi syndrome

Blood disorders:

  • Myeloma;
  • Thalassemia;
  • Leukemia
  • Lymphoma.

Bellow mentioned medical substances assist the development of Osteoporosis:

  • Glucocorticoid
  • Thyroid hormone
  • Anticonvulsant
  • Immunodepressant
  • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist
  • Aluminum-containing antacid
  • Diuretic substances

Osteoporosis and other risk-factors:

Additionally, disorders, that are connected to mineral disturbances or depletion of minerals necessary for bones in human body, also present risk-factors.

When should we visit a doctor?

Osteoporosis scanning should be performed in risk groups and amid fractures, first and foremost in postmenopausal women and men over 50 years old. Special attention should be paid to people who have fractures with minimal traumas. Adequate treatment of Osteoporosis and timely diagnosis hinders “cascade” of fractures characterized for Osteoporosis.

What can you tell us regarding diagnostic methods of Osteoporosis in “New Life” clinic?

Standard X-ray examination should be conducted for diagnostics of peripheral skeleton and spine fractures. 

Lab indicators; Osteoporosis test:

  • Complete blood count
  • Serum calcium and phosphorus
  • Creatinine clearance
  • phosphatase

How do you treat Osteoporosis?

Osteoporosis’ treatment is based on improving bone mineral density. The latter is possible by consuming calcium, micronutrient and vitamin D, whereas in far-gone cases, it is necessary to add other medicine! Self-treatment is inadmissible. For this disease, treatment with antiresorptive medical substances, bone growth stimulators and hormone replacement therapy is recommended.

“New Life” clinic address : Tbilisi, Dighomi, Lubliana str. N21a

You may contact “New Life” clinic’s call center at 577 059 900

In case of any issues, you may contact “New Life”  clinic’s rheumatologists, Otar Zhvania for consultation at 595 75 74 09

Wish you health!